The instrument is a laboratory compact hybrid Raman-LIF-LIBS system based on the excitation of the three types of spectroscopic signals with a Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser (LS-2147, Lotis II) operating at 532, 355 or 266 nm, at a repetition rate of 10 Hz and delivering pulses of 17 ns with Gaussian-like spatial profile. The linearly polarized laser beam is directed to the surface of the sample by means of dichroic mirrors at an incidence angle of 45°. For LIBS measurements, and to increase the laser fluence values above the ablation threshold of the material analysed, the laser beam is focused with a quartz lens placed in front of the sample. The laser spot size and pulse energy are adjusted to their lowest possible values, to achieve the maximum superficial resolution, to avoid sample damage and to obtain spectra with a high signal to noise ratio.
Characterization of the elemental and molecular composition of different types of materials, identification of stratigraphies and assessment of modifications by degradation or cleaning.