User: Márcia Vilarigues
Organisation: NOVA University of Lisbon, Faculty of Science and Technology, (PT)
Grisaille was the first paint to be applied on stained-glass panels, being used in Europe since the 12th century. Historical written sources described the use of iron and copper together with a high lead-silica base glass in the grisailles production. This project aims to study the evolution of the grisaille paint composition throughout time and the changes in the raw materials used in their production. To achieve this objective, 40 grisaille samples dated from the 13th to the 17th centuries, from different origins (CG – Church of Grodziec (Poland); DM – Dominican Monastery, Krakow (Poland); JC – Joost Caen private collection with samples from Belgium, Netherlands, France and Low Countries; S.Jose – Batalha Monastery (Portugal); UC – Uppsala Cathedral (Sweden); NC – Nidaros Cathedral, Trondheim (Norway); SS – Glasmalerei Otto Peters with samples from England and Germany; LS – Restoration Atelier Canterbury with samples from France and England; PNP – National Pena Palace collection (Portugal) with samples from Germany; G – Convent of Tomar (Portugal)) are proposed to be analysed by nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM) in the modality of multiphoton excitation fluorescence (MPEF) and by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) complemented with the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique. With these techniques, the thickness of the grisaille layers will be obtained as well as the accurate composition of the historical grisaille samples, allowing the non-invasive identification of changes in the grisailles composition that can be interpreted as changes in the raw materials and manufacture used in the production of these paint materials. The result of this project will significantly advance the understanding and knowledge of the technological production process for grisailles and stained-glass windows throughout time.