The PIGE technique is for the detection of low-Z elements. (Some low-Z elements can also be detected by PIXE but the information depth is deeper for PIGE.) At MTA Atomki the PIGE technique is available in vacuum, as well as in an external beam arrangement. In-vacuum measurements are preferred when the sample is small (a few cm) and not especially sensitive. The lateral resolution is excellent in vacuum, down to the micron range. For large objects and objects which are made of sensitive materials, the external arrangement is applied. In this case the lateral resolution is a few tens of microns. Elemental maps can be recorded in both cases to display the distribution of elements.
At MTA Atomki the PIGE technique is applied at the Scanning Nuclear Microprobe (Oxford Microbeams) which was built at the 0°beam line of our 5 MV single ended vertical Van de Graaff accelerator. When we are working outside the chamber, the beam is extracted through a thin polymer foil, using an add-on system also by Oxford Microbeams. PIGE can be used at the same time as PIXE, currently we are working with a Canberra HPGe 40% gamma-ray detector. For the quantification of concentrations, standards are also measured.
1. Z. Elekes, Á.Z. Kiss et al. Contribution of PIGE technique to the study of obsidian glasses. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B161 (2000) 836-841
2. R. Huszánk, L. Csedreki, Zs. Török: Direct trace element analysis of liquid blood samples by in-air ion beam analytical techniques (PIXE-PIGE). Analytical Chemistry 89 (2017) 1558-1564.